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Top 22 IOt interview questions

Top 22 IOt interview questions

Top 22 IoT Interview Questions and Answers

1) What is the IoT (Internet of Things)?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical objects or people referred to as "things" that are equipped with software, electronics, networks, and sensors to collect and exchange data. The purpose of the Internet of Things is to extend internet connectivity from traditional devices such as computers, smartphones, and tablets to relatively simple items such as toasters.

2) Describe the Raspberry Pi

Raspberry Pi is a computer that can do all of the functions of a traditional computer. In order to interface with external devices, it contains various functions such as inbuilt WiFi, GPIO pins, and Bluetooth. 

3) How can I run a Raspberry Pi without a display?

SSH can be used to run the Raspberry Pi in headless mode. The current operating system includes a VNC server that may be used to access the Raspberry Pi remotely.

4) What are the core elements of the Internet of Things?

The following are the four basic components of an IoT system:

Sensors/Devices: Sensors and devices are essential components for collecting live data from the environment. All of this information could be difficult in some way. It could be as simple as a temperature monitoring sensor or as complex as a video stream.
Connectivity: All of the information gathered is forwarded to a cloud infrastructure. Various means should be used to connect the sensors to the cloud. of information exchange Mobile or satellite networks, Bluetooth, WI-FI, WAN, and other communication methods are examples.
Data Processing: After the data is captured and transferred to the cloud, the software programme processes the information. This method can be as simple as checking the temperature or readings from devices such as air conditioners or heaters. However, it can also be quite difficult, such as detecting things using computer vision on video.
User Interface: The information must be accessible to the end-user in some way, for as by setting off alarms on their phones or sending them notifications via email or text message. The user may occasionally require an interface that actively monitors their IoT equipment.

5) Describe the levels of the IoT protocol stack.

1) Sensing and information, 2) Network connectivity, 3) Information processing layer, and 4) Application layer are the layers of the IoT protocol stack.

6) What are the drawbacks of the Internet of Things?

IoT has the following drawbacks:

IoT technology generates an ecosystem of connected devices, which poses a security risk. Despite adequate cybersecurity safeguards, the system may provide limited authentication control during this procedure.
Privacy: Without the user's active participation, IoT exposes a significant amount of personal data in great detail. This raises numerous privacy concerns.
Flexibility: There is a lot of anxiety about an IoT system's flexibility. Because there are so many different systems engaged in the process, it is mostly about integrating with another system.
The complexity of the design The Internet of Things system is also fairly intricate. Furthermore, it is difficult to deploy and maintain.
IoT has its own set of laws and regulations to follow. Compliance, on the other hand, is a difficult undertaking due to its intricacy.

7) Create an Arduino sketch

Arduino is a free electronics platform that includes both hardware and software that is simple to use. It has a microcontroller that can read sensor input and programmatically operate the motors.

8) List the most common IoT sensor kinds.

The following are the most common sensor kinds in IoT:

  • Smoke detector
    Sensors for temperature
    Sensors for motion detection and pressure sensors
    Gas detector
    IR sensors and proximity sensors

9) What is the fundamental distinction between the IoT and sensor industries?

To operate, a sensor business does not require an active internet connection. To function, the Internet of Things requires a control side.

10) What are the benefits of the Internet of Things?

The following are some of the major advantages of IoT technology:

Technical Optimization: IoT technology aids in the improvement and improvement of techniques. With IoT, for example, Data from numerous automotive sensors can be collected by a manufacturer. They are analysed by the manufacturer in order to improve the design and make them more efficient.
Improved Data Collecting: Traditional data collection has flaws and is designed for passive consumption. IoT allows for immediate data action.
Reduced Waste: IoT provides real-time data, allowing for better resource management and decision-making. For example, if a manufacturer discovers a problem with many vehicle engines, he can track the manufacturing plan for those engines and use the manufacturing belt to resolve the problem.
Improved Customer Engagement: The Internet of Things (IoT) allows you to improve customer experience by recognising problems and streamlining the process.

11) What is the APX4 protocol from Bluegiga?

The Bluegiga APX4 is a solution based on a 450MHz ARM9 CPU that supports both the WiFI and BLE platforms.

12) What are the most popular Internet of Things applications?

The following are the most common IoT applications:

Smart Thermostats: By analysing your usage habits, they can help you save money on your heating expenses.
Connected Cars: The Internet of Things enables automotive companies to automate billing, parking, insurance, and other associated tasks.
Heart rate patterns, calorie expenditure, activity levels, and skin temperature can all be captured on your wrist using activity trackers.
Smart Outlets: Turn any device on or off remotely. It also allows you to watch the energy status of a gadget and receive personalised notifications directly to your smartphone.
IoT technology assists users with parking sensors. can check the availability of parking spaces in real time on their phones
Connected Health: A connected healthcare system allows for real-time health monitoring and patient treatment. It contributes to better medical decision-making based on patient information.

13)What is Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)?

PWM, or Pulse Width Modulation, is an analogue signal variation that changes the amount of time the signal is high. The signal can be strong or weak, and the user can even alter the time percentage.

14) Mention PWM's IoT applications.

Changing the speed of a DC motor, controlling the direction of a servo moto, dimming LEDs, and other IoT applications include PWM. 

15) What wireless communication boards are available for the Raspberry Pi?

The Raspberry Pi has two wireless communication boards: 1) WiFi and 2) BLE/Bluetooth.

16) In Arduino, what functions are utilised to read analogue and digital data from a sensor?

In Arduino, the functions digitalRead() and digitalWrite() are used to read analogue and digital data from a sensor ().

17)What is Bluetooth Low Energy, exactly?

Bluetooth Low Energy is a PAN (Personal Area Network) technology that is wireless. When transmitting long-distance data across a short distance, it utilises less electricity.

18) What is MicroPython?

MicroPython is a Python implementation that only provides a portion of the standard library. It's possible to optimise it for the ModeMCU microcontroller.

19)List the Raspberry Pi models that are available.

Raspberry Pi models include:

Raspberry Pi 1 Model B Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+ Raspberry Pi 1 Model A Raspberry Pi Zero Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Raspberry Pi 1model A+ Raspberry Pi Zero W Raspberry Pi 2

20) What are the IoT's challenges?

The following are significant IoT challenges:

  • Testing and upgrading are insufficient.
  • Data security and privacy concerns Software complexity
  • Volumes of data and their interpretation
  • Automation and AI integration
  • Devices necessitate a continuous power supply, which is difficult to achieve.
  • Short-range communication and interaction

21) Describe some of the most typical water sensors.

The following are the most widely used water sensors:

  • Total organic carbon sensor Turbidity sensor
  • Conductivity sensor pH sensor

22) Which IoT protocols are most often used?

The following are the most often used IoT protocols:

  • XMPP
  • AMQP
  • Control Protocol That Is Extremely Simple (VSCP)
  • Service for Data Distribution (DDS)
  • Protocol MQTT
  • WiFi
  • Protocol for Simple Text Oriented Messaging (STOMP)
  • Zigbee

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