Deep Learning Using Neural Networks For Natural Language Processing

In the digital era of today, organizations and businesses are inundated with huge amounts of unstructured data. The end-user(s) cannot evaluate and process these large amounts of data unless they have an appropriate methodology and implementation plan, supported by cutting-edge technology. This is where the term Natural Language Processing (abbreviated as NLP) comes into the picture.

Vedant Ghodke | 06th June, 2022

In the digital era of today, organizations and businesses are inundated with huge amounts of unstructured data. The end-user(s) cannot evaluate and process these large amounts of data unless they have an appropriate methodology and implementation plan, supported by cutting-edge technology. This is where the term Natural Language Processing (abbreviated as NLP) comes into the picture.

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Natural Language Processing is a discipline of computer science, and more specifically, a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) and is widely described as the automatic modification of natural languages, such as linguistic terms, by software that enables computers to monitor, analyse, comprehend, and derive useful meaning from natural or anthropogenic spoken languages.

In this case, we must comprehend the fundamental goals. Essentially, we must transfer a given input in human language to meaningful representations.

On a broad scale, NLP systems are comprised of two vital parts:

Natural Language Understanding (NLU)

In this case, we must comprehend the fundamental goals. Essentially, we must transfer a given input in human language to meaningful representations.

Key applications of NLU include:

  • Profanity and Spam Filtering
  • Speech and Voice Recognition
  • Text-Summarization
  • Sentiment Analysis
  • Chatbots

Image Source: Valital Technologies

Image Source: Valital Technologies

Natural Language Generation (NLG)

We must create plausible and rational phrases and sentences, the internal representation of which is in the form of a natural language. This is where NLG plays a vital role.

Key applications of NLG include:

  • Text Realization: is the process of converting a sentence plan into a sentence structure.
  • Sentence Planning: This includes selecting necessary words, generating meaningful phrases, and establishing the tone of the sentence.
  • Text Planning: This entails extracting pertinent material from the knowledge base.

Implementation Steps of NLP Processes

  1. Lexical Analysis: Lexical analysis entails recognising and evaluating word structure. A language’s lexicon is a compendium of words and expressions in that language. Lexical analysis is the process of breaking down a large block of text into sections, phrases, and words.
  2. Syntactic Analysis (Parsing): This entails analysing words in a phrase for syntax and arranging words in a way that demonstrates the link between the words.
  3. Semantic Analysis: It extracts the precise meaning or the definition interpretation from the text using semantic analysis. The text is reviewed for meaning. It is accomplished by the mapping of sentence patterns and entities in the target domain.
  4. Discourse Integration: Any statement’s meaning is dependent on the meaning of the phrase that comes before it. Furthermore, it influences the meaning of the statement that follows.
  5. Pragmatic Analysis: During this stage, what has been said is re-interpreted to determine what it truly meant. It entails deriving those parts of the language that need real-world information.

Image By Vedant Ghodke

Image By Vedant Ghodke

Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN)

Whenever we question Google Home, Alexa or Siri a question about a new track by released an artist or the latest sport scores or even the weather updates, a complicated code executes in the backdrop to present the most suitable responses. Recognizing and obtaining data from unstructured or unsorted information was previously only achievable through manual effort with no approach towards automation.

Natural Language Processing is the basic principle behind the game-changing idea of subjecting textual data to different computational and scientific methodologies. The ultimate aim, as the name implies, is to comprehend simple speech being spoken by humans and react to and/or take measures based on it, much as humans naturally do.

Image Source: Data Aspirant

Image Source: Data Aspirant

Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) are a popular methodology for neural network design of NLP models. It has shown promising results to be quite effective and precise for generating language models and performing voice recognition tasks.

RNNs are also very helpful for predicting word level languages, such as in Named Entity Recognition (NER) or Part Of Speech (POS) tagging. As it saves information for both the present feature and nearby features for prediction. A RNN keeps a recollection based on past data, allowing the model to anticipate current output based on long distance attributes.

Long Short Term Memory Cells (LSTM)

An RNN, whilst being capable of learning dependencies, can only train itself on the recent information and current affairs. Because it understands context as well as recent reliance, LSTM can assist in solving the mentioned challenge. As a result, LSTM are a subtype of RNN where knowing context might be highly beneficial and profitable.

Image Source: LSTM Concept by Eugine Kang

Image Source: LSTM Concept by Eugine Kang

Image Source: LSTM Concept by Eugine Kang

Image Source: LSTM Concept by Eugine Kang

LSTM networks are similar to RNNs, except the hidden layer changes are replaced by memory cells. This improves their ability to detect and expose long-term connections in data, which is critical for sentence structures and recognitions.

There also exists a category of LSTMs named as Bidirectional LSTMs (BiLSTM). These structures are bidirectional, which means they can access both previous and future input characteristics for a specific time period. This is especially crucial for sequence labelling.

Conditional Random Fields (CRF)

When making predictions, CRF takes information into consideration. The distinction among CRF and BiLSTM is that the latter employs input data in both directions, whilst the latter employs tag produced features. In contrast to LSTMs networks, the inputs and outputs are linked directly here. In addition, the output tagged information is linked instead of the input characteristics.

This has shown to be extremely useful in several real-world applications, the distribution of which is shown in the below pie-chart:

Image Source:Papers With Code

Image Source:Papers With Code

Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)

A gated recurrent unit is also known as a gated recurrent network. Each iteration of it results in the implementation of a tiny neural network with three neurons in the hidden layer: the RNN’s recurring layer, a reset gate, and an update gate. The update gate serves as both a forget and an input gate. In an LSTM, the coupling of these two gates serves the same purpose as the three gates forget, input, and output.

In contrast to an LSTM, a GRU has a combined memory cell and hidden layer, whereas an LSTM has distinct states.

Image Source: Plurasight

Image Source: Plurasight

The network’s prediction in text classification is to categorise which category or subgroups the text corresponds to. A frequent use is determining if the emotion of a string of words is favourable or negative.

If an RNN is educated to predict content from a sample inside a certain domain, as described previously in this article, it is nearly optimal for text categorization within that domain. The network’s generating ‘head’ is removed, leaving the network’s ‘backbone’. After then, the weights in the spine can be frozen. The backbone can then be updated with a new categorization head that has been trained to forecast the needed classifications.

Conclusion

On a broader conclusion, it can be furnished that for semi-structured or unstructured data formats of inputs, Natural Language Processing and Recurrent Neural Network based information retrieval algorithms have shown proven benefits in knowledge discovery and conclusive implementational tasks.

In this blog, I have attempted to discuss all of the essential approaches and Recurrent Neural Network topologies that have and can prove to be quintessential in Natural Language Processing models. Do let me know your thoughts.

Thank you for visiting! Do check out my other blogs here.


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Vedant Ghodke

Cisco Systems, Inc.

@vedantghodke
Incoming Associate System Engineer (ASE) at Cisco | Technical Undergraduate Intern at Cisco | Ex-AI Intern at Microsoft
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